Originally this work was scored for 8 natural or Baroque trumpets, timpani and basso continuo. Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber wrote this piece for choirs of trumpets that were instructed to stand separate to make the best use of the antiphonal effect. This piece was intended for natural trumpets (in C). This arrangement has altered some pitches to allow for better performance on modern trumpets (notes are included that are impossible to play on a natural instrument). There are organ cues in Trumpets 3,4 and 7,8 to allow this piece to be performed without an organ. There must be a bass trumpet (baritone or bassoon) playing to provide the crucial bass line. Also provided in this edition are optional organ and bass trumpet parts in several keys to allow this work to be performed in B-flat, C or D. This allows for greater flexibility of performing opportunities ranging from B-flat trumpets to Piccolo and D trumpets in the brilliant key of D.