Marche Slave, Op. 31, ("Slavonic March") was first performed in Moscow in November 1876. It is a rousing patriotic work based on Serbian and Russian folk themes. Tchaikovsky was commissioned to write the piece specifically for a concert to benefit Serb soldiers wounded while fighting (with help from Russian volunteers) against the Ottoman Empire. Hence, the title declared it a march for all Slavs rather than simply for Russians. Though relatively brief, the piece includes a number of distinct moods; bright, festive passages contrast with ominous ones. At several moments, different sections of the orchestra carry their own melodies at the same time, creating a layered effect. Instrumentation in set: 2+2Picc.2.2.2: 4.2+2Crt.3.1: Timp.Perc(4): Str (9-8-7-6-5).